Room-temperature synthesized SnO2 electron transport layers for efficient perovskite solar cells†
Tin oxide (SnO2) is widely used as electron transport layer (ETL) material in perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Numerous synthesis methods for SnO2 have been reported, but they all require a proper thermal treatment for the SnO2 ETLs. Herein we present a simple method to synthesize SnO2 nanoparticles (NPs) at room temperature. By using butyl acetate as a precipitator and a proper UV–Ozone treatment to remove Cl residuals, excellent SnO2 ETLs were obtained without any thermal annealing. The highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the prepared PSCs was 19.22% for reverse scan (RS) and 18.79% for forward scan (FS). Furthermore, flexible PSCs were fabricated with high PCEs of 15.27%/14.74% (RS/FS). The low energy consuming SnO2 ETLs therefore show great promise for the flexible PSCs' commercialization.