X-ray total scattering study of magic-size clusters and quantum dots of cadmium sulphide†
Four types of magic-size CdS clusters and three different CdS quantum dots have been studied using the technique of X-ray total scattering and pair distribution function analysis. We found that the CdS quantum dots could be modelled as a mixed phase of atomic structures based on the two bulk crystalline phases, which is interpreted as representing the effects of random stacking of layers. However, the results for the magic-size clusters are significantly different. On one hand, the short-range features in the pair distribution function reflect the bulk, indicating that these structures are based on the same tetrahedral coordination found in the bulk phases (and therefore excluding new types of structures such as cage-like arrangements of atoms). But on the other hand, the longer-range atomic structure clearly does not reflect the layer structures found in the bulk and the quantum dots. We compare the effect of two ligands, phenylacetic acid and oleic acid, showing that in one case the ligand has little effect on the atomic structure of the magic-size nanocluster, and in another it has a significant effect.