Spatioselective functionalization of gold nanopillar arrays†
A process combining electrochemical nanofabrication by hard templating with the use of a masking strategy and surface functionalization methods, is developed to produce arrays of gold nanopillars of spatially-controlled surface chemistry. Therefore, a gold nanopillar array is first fabricated by performing metal electrochemical deposition into a track-etched membrane supported on a gold substrate. After dissolution of the membrane, a protective polymer layer is deposited on the array and partially etched to specifically reveal the top of the nanopillars. Then, a polythiolactone-based copolymer is grafted on the upper part of the nanopillars. Afterwards, the sacrificial polymer layer is dissolved to reveal the non-functionalized surface corresponding to the lower part of the gold nanopillars and the background surface. This surface is subsequently modified by a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of alkylthiol molecules which leads to nanostructured surfaces with spatio-selective surface chemistry. The grafting of gold nanoparticles and of a bioadhesive peptide on the top and on the background of the nanopillar array, respectively, is performed to prove the versatility of the approach to produce bifunctionalized nanopillar arrays for biological, biosensing or (bio)catalysis applications.