Bioinspired interface design modulates pathogen and immunocyte responses in biomaterial-centered infection combination therapy†
The rise of multidrug-resistant pathogens and the dearth of novel antibiotic development means that breakthrough strategies that go beyond the classical antibiotic mechanism are urgently required to fight this approaching human health cataclysm. Herein, inspired by the metabolism cascade of pathogens and the clearance of infection by the host immune system, a new three-step strategy is reported to achieve combination therapy of biomaterial-centered infections. Band-structure-tunable cobalt doped TiO2 semiconductor can effectively restrain bacterial biofilm formation and enhance phagocytosing and killing of bacteria by immune cells. Released Co2+ ions can produce a proinflammatory microenvironment and potentiate the antibacterial capability of immune cells. This design concept can be applied to develop other antibacterial biomaterials, and holds great promise for advanced biomaterial-centered infection therapy.