Biobased phenol and furan derivative coupling for the synthesis of functional monomers
Generally, chemistry, and in particular polymer chemistry, faces the major challenge of finding solutions to ensure the sustainable and environmentally benign development of industry to meet consumer needs. Aromatics are very important chemical groups in polymer science for the synthesis of several thermostable and thermosetting polymers. However, most petroleum-based aromatic monomers (such as phenol) are toxic. Furthermore, less toxic and sustainable aromatics are difficult to obtain because natural phenols have various functionalities in nature. Consequently, aromatic-containing building blocks must be synthesized. The present review gives an overview of the different synthetic methods to prepare aromatic building blocks via various coupling methods. It then focuses on the synthesis of C–C bonds, reductive coupling of natural aldehydes, carbonyl–aromatic coupling and other various routes to prepare monomers. Indeed, owing to the rich reactivity and properties of aromatics, these functional monomers will undoubtedly lead to the development of high-added value polymers. This review also gives a brief overview of their potential applications.