Daily consumption of fruit-flavored yoghurt enriched with vitamins B contributes to lower energy intake and body weight reduction, in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized clinical trial
Yoghurt naturally contains vitamins of B-complex which play a central role in energy metabolism. This study investigates the effects of consumption of yoghurt enriched with vitamins B, in comparison with conventional yoghurt, on body weight management and glycemic control of patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Thirty-three overweight/obese patients (BMI 27–36 kg m−2) were randomized into two groups receiving two servings of non-fat yoghurt per day, either strawberry-flavored enriched with vitamins B1, B5 and B6 (VY) or conventional (CY) for 12 weeks. At the beginning and the end of the dietary intervention, anthropometric characteristics, biochemical parameters, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1b (IL-1b), vitamins B and homocysteine concentrations were determined. Dietary assessments were also performed. At the end of the intervention, body weight and BMI were reduced in the VY group (86.5 ± 3.1 vs. 87.7 ± 3.0 kg, and 29.2 ± 1.0 vs. 29.6 ± 0.9 kg m−2, respectively, P < 0.05) and dietary intake was lower compared to the CY group (7277.6 ± 332.6 vs. 9918.2 ± 612.1 kJ day−1, P < 0.05). HbA1c was marginally reduced in the VY group (6.2 ± 0.2 vs. 6.4 ± 0.3%, P = 0.08), concentrations of B1, B2 and B6 were increased (63.8 ± 5.6 vs. 52.8 ± 1.7 μg L−1, P = 0.09, 9.2 ± 1.5 vs. 6.9 ± 1.4 μg L−1, P < 0.05 and 23.0 ± 2.8 vs. 14.9 ± 1.2 μg L−1, P < 0.05, respectively) and a trend towards reduced homocysteine concentrations was observed (16.9 ± 1.7 vs. 18.3 ± 2.0 μmol L−1, P = 0.06). IL-6 was decreased in both groups but significantly in the CY group (1.33 ± 0.13 vs. 1.67 ± 0.63 pg mL−1, P < 0.05). Daily consumption of fruit-flavored yoghurt enriched with vitamins B facilitates body weight management and improves vitamins B status and homocysteine levels in overweight/obese T2DM patients.