Potential effects of rapeseed peptide Maillard reaction products on aging-related disorder attenuation and gut microbiota modulation in D-galactose induced aging mice
As a good flavor enhancer, rapeseed peptide Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were developed, and the effects of MRPs on D-galactose induced aging Kunming mice were investigated for 6 weeks with low (200 mg kg−1 day−1), medium (400 mg kg−1 day−1) and high (800 mg kg−1 day−1) doses. Compared with the natural aging group and D-galactose induced aging mice, the mice with MRP administration showed increases in body weight gain, food intake, organ indexes, feces color and urine fluorescence intensity. MRP intake significantly decreased the MDA content and elevated the activities of CAT, SOD and GSH-Px, and T-AOC in the serum and tissues of the liver, kidney and brain. Additionally, AChE activity was decreased in the brain, while Na+–K+ ATPase and Ca2+–Mg2+ ATPase activity increased in a dose-dependent manner, and decreasing levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were observed in the liver and kidney. Histopathological analysis suggested an attenuation of inflammatory cell infiltration in the liver and kidney without cell necrosis. High-throughput sequencing results revealed that the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes increased in MRP groups, and the pathogenic bacteria were significantly inhibited, while some beneficial bacteria were significantly increased in the intestine. Overall, our results indicated that MRP consumption might have potential beneficial effects on postponing the aging process via reducing the oxidative stress and gut microflora modulation.