Effects of Momordica saponin extract on alleviating fat accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans
Momordica saponins have diverse biological activities and are widely used to improve obesity. Here, we investigated the alleviation of fat accumulation and mechanism of action of the saponin-enriched ethanol extract from Momordica charantia (MSE) in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). First, MSE had a strong fat-reduction capacity in normal and high-fat worms. Second, MSE significantly increased the proportion of small lipid droplets and reduced the average particle size in ZXW618. Meanwhile, it improved lifespan and healthspan and physiological functions, such as age pigmentation and neuroprotection. Furthermore, MSE mediated fat reduction gets involved neither in energy intake nor in energy expenditure. Finally, MSE might down-regulate sbp-1 and nhr-49 via mdt-15, and up regulate age-1 via daf-2. And these targets genes together down-regulated the expression of fat-5, fat-6 and fat-7 to decrease fat accumulation. Our results provided new insights into the inhibition of fat accumulation and underlying mechanisms of Momordica saponins in C. elegans, which might be developed into a nutraceutical to ameliorate obesity.