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Issue 11, 2019
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Emerging two-dimensional monoelemental materials (Xenes) for biomedical applications

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The emergence of novel two-dimensional (2D) monoelemental materials (Xenes) has shown remarkable potential for their applications in different fields of technology, as well as addressing new discoveries in fundamental science. Xenes (e.g., borophene, silicene, germanene, stanene, phosphorene, arsenene, antimonene, bismuthene, and tellurene) are of particular interest because they are the most chemically tractable materials for synthetic exploration. Owing to their excellent physical, chemical, electronic and optical properties, Xenes have been regarded as promising agents for biosensors, bioimaging, therapeutic delivery, and theranostics, as well as in several other new bio-applications. In this tutorial review, we summarize their general properties including the classification of Xenes according to their bulk properties. The synthetic and modification methods of Xenes are also presented. Furthermore, the representative Xene nanoplatforms for various biomedical applications are highlighted. Finally, research progress, challenges, and perspectives for the future development of Xenes in biomedicines are discussed.

Graphical abstract: Emerging two-dimensional monoelemental materials (Xenes) for biomedical applications

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Article information

02 Mar 2019
First published
23 May 2019

Chem. Soc. Rev., 2019,48, 2891-2912
Article type
Tutorial Review

Emerging two-dimensional monoelemental materials (Xenes) for biomedical applications

W. Tao, N. Kong, X. Ji, Y. Zhang, A. Sharma, J. Ouyang, B. Qi, J. Wang, N. Xie, C. Kang, H. Zhang, O. C. Farokhzad and J. S. Kim, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2019, 48, 2891
DOI: 10.1039/C8CS00823J

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