Atomic layer deposition for efficient and stable perovskite solar cells
Organic–inorganic hybrid metal halides are now the most attractive photovoltaic absorber materials, typically, methylammonium lead triiodides (MAPbI3). These unique semiconducting materials as absorbers demonstrate a remarkably improved power conversion efficiency of over 20% and now with a certified efficiency of 23.3%. Considering the Shockley–Queisser limit and their bandgaps, there is still much room to increase the efficiency. Stable devices with reproducibility and long-term use are essential for their commercialization. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a powerful technique to deposit high-quality thin films with excellent thickness accuracy and conformality, as well as with no pin-holes in a large area at low temperatures. ALD could be an ideal tool for efficient and stable perovskite solar cells. In particular, ALD will emerge for the production of tandem as well as flexible solar cells. This review contains the following recent research topics; underlying charge transport layers onto transparent conducting oxides (TCO), interfacial layers, overlying electron transport layers (ETLs), and encapsulation techniques utilized by ALD. Several extended understandings by recent studies and challenges toward further enhancing the efficiency and stability will be addressed.
- This article is part of the themed collections: Celebrating the 75th Anniversary of the Korean Chemical Society (KCS) and Perovskites