On-chip biosynthesis of GM1 pentasaccharide-related complex glycans
A functional glycan chip combined with on-chip enzymatic glycosylation was developed to prepare complex glycan sources and to apply glycan-involved applications simultaneously. GM3 trisaccharide, GM2 tetrasaccharide, and GM1 pentasaccharide were successfully directly biosynthesized on lactose-immobilized surfaces through three consecutive glycosyltransferase reactions along with small amounts of enzymes and donors, without any additional processes. Biosynthesized GM1 pentasaccharide-related complex glycans were demonstrated to provide information on the substrate specificity of whole cholera toxin. Thus, the proposed on-chip glycan biosynthesis system can provide a new direction toward obtaining complex glycan sources and complex glycan-involved applications such as glycan–protein interaction analysis and glycan biomarker-based diagnosis.