Jump to main content
Jump to site search
PLANNED MAINTENANCE Close the message box

Scheduled maintenance work on Wednesday 27th March 2019 from 11:00 AM to 1:00 PM (GMT).

During this time our website performance may be temporarily affected. We apologise for any inconvenience this might cause and thank you for your patience.

Issue 35, 2018
Previous Article Next Article

Thermoelectric stability of Eu- and Na-substituted PbTe

Author affiliations


As one family of the most investigated thermoelectrics (TE), PbTe-based materials have been developed into state-of-the-art p-type and n-type TE materials. However, there are quite a few studies focusing on the reproducibility of TE properties and microstructure evolution during different heat treatments. In this work, Pb0.98−xNa0.02EuxTe (x = 0–0.030) samples were systematically examined after three different kinds of heat treatments: spark plasma sintering (SPS), laser flash measurement (LFA), and long-term annealing. The maximal solubility of Eu (ca. 1.0 atom%) in Pb0.98−xNa0.02EuxTe was established at 873 K. The most inhomogeneous samples (samples after SPS) show highest values of figure-of-merit, ZTmax, of up to 2.1 at 760 K, due to a large number of micrometer-scale sodium- and europium-rich aggregations in them. After additional heat treatment (LFA measurement or long-term annealing), the ZTmax value reduces to 1.6. The distribution of Eu and Na in the samples becomes much more homogeneous, accompanied by increased lattice parameters and decreased carrier concentrations. The long-term annealed samples have the best stable TE properties and good mechanical stability in the cyclic measurements. Surface protection needs to be considered for the temperatures above 773 K in order to avoid material decomposition.

Graphical abstract: Thermoelectric stability of Eu- and Na-substituted PbTe

Back to tab navigation

Supplementary files

Publication details

The article was received on 26 Jun 2018, accepted on 03 Aug 2018 and first published on 06 Aug 2018

Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C8TC03142H
Citation: J. Mater. Chem. C, 2018,6, 9482-9493
  • Open access: Creative Commons BY license
  •   Request permissions

    Thermoelectric stability of Eu- and Na-substituted PbTe

    X. Wang, I. Veremchuk, U. Burkhardt, M. Bobnar, H. Böttner, C. Kuo, C. Chen, C. Chang, J. Zhao and Y. Grin, J. Mater. Chem. C, 2018, 6, 9482
    DOI: 10.1039/C8TC03142H

    This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Licence. Material from this article can be used in other publications provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material.

    Reproduced material should be attributed as follows:

    • For reproduction of material from NJC:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the RSC.
    • For reproduction of material from PCCP:
      [Original citation] - Published by the PCCP Owner Societies.
    • For reproduction of material from PPS:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the European Society for Photobiology, the European Photochemistry Association, and RSC.
    • For reproduction of material from all other RSC journals:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry.

    Information about reproducing material from RSC articles with different licences is available on our Permission Requests page.

Search articles by author