NIR–NIR photon avalanche based luminescent thermometry with Nd3+ doped nanoparticles†
The recent advances in remote luminescent thermometry give promise for numerous important biomedical applications including temperature T mapping with sub-micrometer spatial resolution and real time kinetics studies within single cells. The ongoing challenge is to find luminophores, which exhibit many exorbitant parameters in a single luminescent nanoparticle, for example, high (e.g. SR > 2% per K) temperature sensitivities in the physiological temperature range, high luminescence brightness in the NIR spectral region, simplicity and reliability of T readout and mapping. Here, we show an unprecedented approach to luminescent T sensing, which relies on highly temperature dependent non-resonant 1064 nm NIR photoexcitation and a 880 nm anti-Stokes avalanche-like NIR emission from Nd3+ doped nanoparticles. The behavior of NaYF4, Y2O3, YGdO3, YAlO3, Y3Al5O12, LiLaP4O12, Gd2O3 materials and rate-equation modeling suggest that this photon-avalanche phenomenon offers extraordinary features, such as SR > 4% per K at 300–350 K, high brightness in the NIR region and a double mode, intensity or time-resolved based T readout.
- This article is part of the themed collections: International Year of the Periodic Table : Lanthanides for Precision Therapy and Beyond and 2018 Journal of Materials Chemistry C HOT Papers