Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as T1 contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging
Ultrasmall iron oxide nanoparticles have recently attracted much attention as T1 (positive) contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging to serve as safer alternatives to gadolinium-based T1 contrast agents. This review will discuss several key aspects regarding this newly developed contrast agent, including synthetic strategies, parameters affecting T1 signal (e.g., size, surface, and environment), and emerging applications. The integration with other imaging modalities will be discussed as well, such as dual T1/T2 imaging, positron emission tomography, and computed tomography. Finally, perspectives and outlook about the future development and concerns will be included.