Polydopamine nanostructures as biomaterials for medical applications
Polydopamine is a versatile and organic material that can be deposited as a conformal film with nanometer thickness on virtually any substrate. Much of the initial foundational work regarding polydopamine synthesis and processing was reported during the 2000s. Latter years have witnessed increasing interest and widespread adoption of polydopamine as a material for many applications including medicine. Conformal polydopamine coatings confer unique chemical and physical properties to many substrate materials including metals, ceramics, polymers, and beyond. Polydopamine-modified surfaces permit facile bioconjugation of many biological materials for potential use as bioadhesives, contrast agents, drug delivery systems, and protein-adsorption resistant interfaces. Polydopamine-based materials and interfaces may improve the performance of biomedical devices used in neurotechnology, diagnostics, and cardiovascular applications. This highlight article reviews recent advances in polydopamine processing capabilities. The use of polydopamine as a material in various biomedical applications is also discussed. Finally, challenges and opportunities in translating biomedical technologies featuring polydopamine are summarized.