The quest for manganese-rich electrodes for lithium batteries: strategic design and electrochemical behavior
Manganese oxides, notably γ-MnO2 and modified derivatives, have played a major role in electrochemical energy storage for well over a century. They have been used as the positive electrode in primary (single discharge) Leclanché dry cells and alkaline cells, as well as in primary and secondary (rechargeable) lithium cells with non-aqueous electrolytes. Lithiated manganese oxides, such as LiMn2O4 (spinel) and layered lithium–nickel–manganese–cobalt (NMC) oxide systems, are playing an increasing role in the development of advanced rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. These manganese-rich electrodes have both cost and environmental advantages over their nickel counterpart, NiOOH, the dominant cathode material for rechargeable nickel–cadmium and nickel–metal hydride batteries, and their cobalt counterpart, LiCoO2, the dominant cathode material in lithium-ion batteries that power cell phones. An additional benefit is that tetravalent manganese can be used as a redox-active and/or stabilizing ‘spectator’ ion in lithiated mixed-metal oxide electrodes. This paper provides an overview of the historical development of manganese-based oxide electrode materials and structures, leading to advanced systems for lithium-ion battery technology; it updates a twenty-year old review of manganese oxides for lithium batteries. The narrative emanates largely from strategies used to design manganese oxide electrode structures at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, South Africa (1980–1994), Oxford University, UK (1981–1982), and Argonne National Laboratory, USA (1994–2017); it highlights the worldwide evolution of ideas and recent trends to improve the design, stability, and electrochemical capacity of structurally integrated, manganese-rich electrode materials.
- This article is part of the themed collection: 2018 Sustainable Energy and Fuels HOT Articles