Carbon-assisted conversion reaction-based oxide nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries
This study presents the research progress in carbon-assisted conversion reaction-based metal oxides for high-performance anodes of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Conversion reaction-based metal oxides as anodes for LIBs suffer from large volume variations during charging/discharging processes, which would result in poor conductivity and fading capacity. In the past decade, various conversion reaction-based metal oxides have been integrated into different carbon nanostructures including one-dimensional nanostructures (carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers), two-dimensional nanostructures (graphene, graphene oxides), three-dimensional nanostructures (carbon networks, carbon foam) as well as porous carbon materials. This study describes the structures and properties of these composites and further focuses on the synergistic effects of hybrid nanostructures on the specific capacitance, rate capacity and cyclability. This study also briefly discusses charge transport, ion diffusion, and the related reaction energy barriers.