Jump to main content
Jump to site search

Issue 4, 2018
Previous Article Next Article

An ionic liquid based sodium metal-hybrid supercapacitor-battery

Author affiliations


There is growing interest in developing sodium based energy storage devices as alternatives to Li for large-scale energy storage. We report a highly stable hybrid system comprising a sodium metal anode, a highly porous N/S co-doped mesoporous carbon cathode and the non-flammable ionic liquid electrolyte N-propyl-N-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl) imide (C3mpyrFSI). This hybrid device operates at 100% coulombic efficiency and shows almost complete capacity retention over 3000 cycles. Owing to the reversible cathode reactions between Na+ and N/S functionalities on the carbon surface, a very high capacity of 716 mA h g−1 (at a rate of C/16) was achieved between 3.8 V and 0.005 V vs. Na+/Na. An optimised device could provide energy density as high as 263 W h kg−1. At high rate, the devices achieved power density of 1463 W kg−1. These metrics increase to 270 W h kg−1 and 3822 W kg−1 at 50 °C, highlighting the excellent combination of a supercapacitor-type cathode with a sodium metal anode and an ionic liquid electrolyte for large-scale energy storage.

Graphical abstract: An ionic liquid based sodium metal-hybrid supercapacitor-battery

Back to tab navigation

Supplementary files

Publication details

The article was received on 21 Sep 2017, accepted on 19 Dec 2017 and first published on 19 Dec 2017

Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C7SE00547D
Citation: Sustainable Energy Fuels, 2018,2, 763-771
  •   Request permissions

    An ionic liquid based sodium metal-hybrid supercapacitor-battery

    T. C. Mendes, F. Zhou, A. J. Barlow, M. Forsyth, P. C. Howlett and D. R. MacFarlane, Sustainable Energy Fuels, 2018, 2, 763
    DOI: 10.1039/C7SE00547D

Search articles by author