Diketopyrrolopyrrole-based semiconducting polymer nanoparticles for in vivo second near-infrared window imaging and image-guided tumor surgery†
A diketopyrrolopyrrole-based semiconducting polymer nanoparticle (PDFT1032) has been developed as a NIR-II (near infrared window II, 1000–1700 nm) fluorescent probe. It shows high photostability, a favorable absorption peak at 809 nm, a large Stokes shift of 223 nm, outstanding biocompatibility and minimal in vivo toxicity. More importantly, the versatile use of PDFT1032 for several important biomedical applications in the NIR-II window has been demonstrated, including the NIR-II optical imaging of tumors on a subcutaneous osteosarcoma model, assessing the vascular embolization therapy of tumors, and NIR-II image-guided orthotopic tumor surgery and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) with high spatial and temporal resolution. Overall, excellent biocompatibility, favorable hydrophilicity, and desirable chemical and optical properties make the semiconducting polymer nanoparticle PDFT1032 a highly promising NIR-II imaging probe with the potential to be widely applicable in clinical imaging and the surgical treatment of malignancy.
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