Theranostic nanocomposite from upconversion luminescent nanoparticles and black phosphorus nanosheets†
An anti-cancer campaign might not be easily achieved through a single therapeutic modality. Collaboration of multimodal therapies and diagnosis could be vital to win the battle against cancer. In this context, we synthesized a multifunctional theranostic nanocomposite (UCNP–BPNS) from upconversion nanoparticles (UCNP) and black phosphorus nanosheets (BPNS) for synergistic photothermal/photodynamic therapies in vitro and dual modal imaging. Core–shell UCNP (NaYF4:Yb,Er@NaGdF4) and BPNS were synthesized using solvo-thermal and liquid exfoliation methods, respectively, and then covalently conjugated after UCNP was modified with polyacrylic acid and BPNS with methoxypolyethylene glycol amine. The experimental results validate that the nanocomposite exhibited a good photothermal therapy (PTT) effect under 808 nm laser irradiation, endorsing the apparent heat conversion effect of BPNS. Besides, a very good photodynamic therapy (PDT) effect was achieved under 980 nm laser irradiation of the nanocomposite due to Förster resonance energy transfer from UCNP to BPNS that generated singlet oxygen (1O2). The synergistic PTT/PDT therapeutic effect provided by UCNP–BPNS under simultaneous 808 and 980 nm laser irradiation was significantly higher than either PTT or PDT alone. Furthermore, due to the merit of the outer shell coated on the surface of the core of UCNP, the nanocomposite exhibited good potential for magnetic resonance and upconversion luminescence imaging. These results demonstrated that our multifunctional nanocomposite has promising theranostic efficacy under near infrared laser irradiation.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Editors’ collection: Photodynamic therapy