Schwertmannite: occurrence, properties, synthesis and application in environmental remediation
Schwertmannite is a typical iron-derived mineral, which was originally discovered in acid mine drainings and subsequently synthesized in the laboratory. Increasingly, it is seen as having considerable potential as an adsorbent material, which could be used for environmental remediation (such as the treatment/remediation of arsenic, chromium, antimony, fluoride, and organic contaminants). This study reviews current developments, mainly in the preparation, structure, and water treatment of Schwertmannite. Several key issues are discussed in detail, such as synthetic strategy, the structure–property relationships, potential environmental applications, and related mechanisms. Soil remediation by schwertmannite is compared to water treatment, and its application is further evaluated. Finally, the methodologies for water treatment and soil remediation using schwertmannite are also taken into consideration from an environmental point of view.