Persistent radical anion polymers based on naphthalenediimide and a vinylene spacer†
Persistent n-doped conjugated polymers were achieved by doping the electron accepting PDNDIV and PFNDIV polymers with ionic (TBACN) or neutral (TDAE) dopants. The great electron affinities, as indicated by the low LUMO levels of PDNDIV (−4.09 eV) and PFNDIV (−4.27 eV), facilitated the chemical reduction from either TBACN or TDAE. The low-lying LUMOs of the neutral polymers PDNDIV and PFNDIV were achieved by incorporation of vinylene spacers between the electron poor NDI units to increase the conjugation length without the use of an electron donor, and this was lowered further by an electron-withdrawing fluorinated N-substituent on the NDI moiety. The polymer radical anions were found to persist for several days under ambient conditions by EPR spectroscopy. A distinguishing and noteworthy feature of these polymers is that they can be consecutively reduced by up to four electrons in acetonitrile. Conductivity measurements demonstrate the prospective impact of PDNDIV and PFNDIV for organic electronics.