Improved performance of optical phased arrays assisted by transparent graphene nanoheaters and air trenches
In this paper, high-performance optical phased arrays (OPAs) assisted by transparent graphene nanoheaters and air trenches have been designed and simulated. By directly locating graphene nanoheaters on silicon waveguides, heating efficiency is enhanced by 62.96% compared to conventional structures with 1 μm SiO2 overlays, and is further enhanced by a factor of 200% by the presence of air trenches. Thanks to the high thermal conductivity of graphene, a record-high operation speed on the order of 200 kHz is realized. Power consumption for π phase shift is 4.65 mW, approximately half of that of the state-of-the-art OPAs. By introducing air trenches, thermal crosstalk is significantly reduced, resulting in an enlarged fill factor. In addition, a novel beam steering scheme in the θ direction is proposed. By applying a 30 mW heating power, a temperature gradient along antennas is generated and beam steering of 2.3° is achieved, satisfying applications such as long-range collision avoidance for autonomous driving.
- This article is part of the themed collection: 2019 International Open Access Week Collection