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Issue 2, 2018
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Enhanced crystallinity of CH3NH3PbI3 by the pre-coordination of PbI2–DMSO powders for highly reproducible and efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

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Abstract

Solution processable CH3NH3PbI3 has received considerable attention for highly-efficient perovskite solar cells. However, the different solubility of PbI2 and CH3NH3I is problematic, initiating active solvent engineering research using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Here we investigated the pre-coordination of PbI2–DMSO powders for planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells fabricated by a low-temperature process (≤100 °C). Pre-coordination was carried out by simple mechanical mixing using a mortar and pestle. The composition of PbI2–DMSOx (x = 0, 1, or 2) in the powder mixture was investigated by gradually increasing mechanical mixing time, and a dominant composition of PbI2–DMSO1 was obtained after a 10 min mixing process. The pre-coordinated PbI2–DMSO powders were then blended with CH3NH3I in DMF to make the CH3NH3PbI3 film by toluene-assisted spin-coating and heat treatment. Compared with the one-step blending of CH3NH3I, PbI2, and DMSO in DMF, the pre-coordination method resulted in better dissolution of PbI2, larger grain size, and pinhole-free morphology. Consequently, absorption, fluorescence, carrier lifetime, and charge extraction were enhanced. The average open-circuit voltage (1.046 V), short-circuit current (22.9 mA cm−2), fill factor (73.5%), and power conversion efficiency (17.6%) were increased by 2–12% with decreased standard deviations (13–50%), compared with the one-step blending method. The best efficiency was 18.2%. The simple mechanical pre-coordination of PbI2–DMSO powders was very effective in enhancing the crystallinity of CH3NH3PbI3 and photovoltaic performance.

Graphical abstract: Enhanced crystallinity of CH3NH3PbI3 by the pre-coordination of PbI2–DMSO powders for highly reproducible and efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
10 Nov 2017
Accepted
18 Dec 2017
First published
03 Jan 2018

This article is Open Access

RSC Adv., 2018,8, 1005-1013
Article type
Paper

Enhanced crystallinity of CH3NH3PbI3 by the pre-coordination of PbI2–DMSO powders for highly reproducible and efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

J. Lee and S. Baik, RSC Adv., 2018, 8, 1005
DOI: 10.1039/C7RA12304C

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported Licence. Material from this article can be used in other publications provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material and it is not used for commercial purposes.

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    [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the RSC.
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    [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the European Society for Photobiology, the European Photochemistry Association, and RSC.
  • For reproduction of material from all other RSC journals:
    [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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