Syntheses and anti-cancer activity of CO-releasing molecules with targeting galactose receptors†
CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) containing cobalt have many bioactivities, but most of them do not dissolve in water and have no selectivity to tissue and organs. On the basis of the specific recognition of galactose or sialic acid by a receptor, a series of CORMs based on carbohydrates were synthesized and evaluated. The test results show that all the complexes displayed anticancer activity. Among them, the effects of the complexes of galactose (1), GalNAc (8) and sialic acid (10) were very distinct. Complex 1 displayed higher activity against HeLa, HePG2, MCF-7 and HT-29 cell proliferation than cis-platin (DDP), and its selectivity was far much better than DDP compared with normal cell W138. Furthermore, the uptakes of complexes 1, 8 and 10 by HePG2, HT-29, A549 and RAW264.7 cell lines were studied. The uptake ratio of each cell line for complex 1 was different, and the order of uptake ratio in the four cell lines was HePG2 > HT-29 > RAW264.7 > A549. The HePG2 cells absorbed complex 1 beyond 60% after incubation for 8 h, while A549 absorbed only 27.8%. For complex 8, the uptake trend was similar to that of complex 1 with it being absorbed by all the four cancer cells, but the uptake rate was lower. However, differently, complex 10 was absorbed heavily by macrophage RAW264.7, followed by HePG2; after 8 h incubation, the uptake ratio of RAW264.7 was over 50%. In addition, the mechanism of action was explored, and the results showed that the complexes inhibited cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase; complex 1 up-regulated the expression levels of caspase-3 and Bax, and down-regulated the Bcl-2 expression, giving rise to HePG2 cell apoptosis.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Chemical Biology in OBC