Synthesis of porous Pd nanoparticles by therapeutic chaga extract for highly efficient tri-modal cancer treatment†
Porous palladium nanoparticles were designed and synthesized to maximize the pharmacological activity of the chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract, which has anticancer and antibacterial activities. In the present study, we synthesized anisotropic porous Pd nanostructures with ultraviolet-visible-near infrared whole wavelength region absorption using chaga extract concentration-dependent reductant-mediated synthesis. The porous Pd nanoparticles exhibited a surface chaga extract-derived anticancer effect, controlled delivery of doxorubicin through electrostatic interaction, and a photothermal conversion effect under 808 nm laser irradiation. The combined application of the three cancer treatment approaches clearly demonstrated the feasibility of synergistic tri-modal therapy. The present platform using Pd, which is a key constituent element of nanocatalysts but is not commonly used in biological applications, suggests numerous applications utilizing Pd nanostructures, as well as the potential development of new cancer therapies.