Five-fold plasmonic Fano resonances with giant bisignate circular dichroism
Chiral metamaterials with versatile designs can exhibit orders of magnitude enhancement in chiroptical responses compared with that of the natural chiral media. Here, we propose an ease-of-fabrication three-dimensional (3D) chiral metamaterial consisting of vertical asymmetric plate-shape resonators along a planar air hole array with extraordinary optical transmission. It is theoretically shown that such chiral metamaterials simultaneously support five-fold plasmonic Fano resonance states and exhibit significant bisignate circular dichroism (CD) with amplitude as large as 0.8 due to the distinctive local electric field distributions. More interestingly, a “bridge” in the proposed double-plate-based architectures can act as a flipped ruler that is able to continuously manipulate optical chirality including the handedness-selective enhancement and the switching of CD signals. Importantly, the proposed designs have been readily fabricated by using a focused-ion-beam irradiation-induced folding technique and they consistently exhibited five-fold Fano resonances with strong CD effects in experiments. The studies are helpful for the understanding, designing and improvement of chiral optical systems towards potential applications such as ultrasensitive biosensing, polarimetric imaging, quantum information processing, etc.