Spray coating of the PCBM electron transport layer significantly improves the efficiency of p-i-n planar perovskite solar cells†
The p-i-n structure for perovskite solar cells has recently shown significant advantages in minimal hysteresis effects, and scalable manufacturing potential using low-temperature solution processing. However, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the perovskite p-i-n structure remains low mainly due to limitations using a flat electron transport layer (ETL). In this work, we demonstrate a new approach using spray coating to fabricate the [6,6]-phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) ETL. By creating a rough surface, we effectively improve the light trapping properties inside the PCBM ETL. We reveal that the spray coated PCBM can form a cross-linked network, which may facilitate better charge transport and enhance extraction efficiency. By improving the contact between the perovskite film and the PCBM ETL, a reduction in the trap states is observed resulting in a PCE increase from 13% to >17%.