Nanoparticle-enhanced electrical detection of Zika virus on paper microchips†
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a reemerging flavivirus causing an ongoing pandemic and public health emergency worldwide. There are currently no effective vaccines or specific therapy for Zika infection. Rapid, low-cost diagnostics for mass screening and early detection are of paramount importance in timely management of the infection at the point-of-care (POC). The current Zika diagnostics are laboratory-based and cannot be implemented at the POC particularly in resource-limited settings. Here, we develop a nanoparticle-enhanced viral lysate electrical sensing assay for Zika virus detection on paper microchips with printed electrodes. The virus is isolated from biological samples using antibodies and labeled with platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) to enhance the electrical signal. The captured ZIKV-PtNP complexes are lysed using a detergent to release the electrically charged molecules associated with the intact virus and the PtNPs on the captured viruses. The released charged molecules and PtNPs change the electrical conductivity of the solution, which can be measured on a cellulose paper microchip with screen-printed microelectrodes. The results confirmed a highly specific detection of ZIKV in the presence of other non-targeted viruses, including closely related flaviviruses such as dengue virus-1 and dengue virus-2 with a detection limit down to 101 virus particles per μl. The developed assay is simple, rapid, and cost-effective and has the potential for POC diagnosis of viral infections and treatment monitoring.
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