Impact of magnetization and hyperfine field distribution on high magnetoelectric coupling strength in BaTiO3–BiFeO3 multilayers†
Correlations were established between the hyperfine field distribution around the Fe atoms, the multiferroic properties, and the high magnetoelectric coefficient in BaTiO3–BiFeO3 multilayer stacks with variable BiFeO3 single layer thickness, down to 5 nm. Of key importance in this study was the deposition of 57Fe – enriched BiFeO3, which enhances the sensitivity of conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy by orders of magnitude. The magnetoelectric coefficient αME reaches a maximum of 60.2 V cm−1 Oe−1 at 300 K and at a DC bias field of 2 Tesla for a sample of 15 × (10 nm BaTiO3–5 nm BiFeO3) and is one of the highest values reported so far. Interestingly, the highest αME is connected to a high asymmetry of the hyperfine field distribution of the multilayer composite samples. The possible mechanisms responsible for the strong magnetoelectric coupling are discussed.