Multiple carrier-transfer pathways in a flower-like In2S3/CdIn2S4/In2O3 ternary heterostructure for enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production†
A novel flower-like In2S3/CdIn2S4/In2O3 (ICS) ternary heterostructure (HS) is rationally constructed for the first time by a series of carefully designed procedures. In2O3 nanoflakes are the main constituent units which assemble into a flower-like skeleton structure, and CdIn2S4 nanoparticles are in situ generated on the surface of In2O3 nanoflakes through the transformation of CdS quantum dots (QDs) while In2S3 nanoparticles are in situ produced at the region between CdIn2S4 nanoparticles and In2O3 nanoflakes resulting from a synchronous sulfuration procedure. As expected, the rationally designed ICS ternary HSs display significantly enhanced photocatalytic H2 production, especially ICS5 (sulfurized for 5 h) with the highest H2 evolution rate of 20.04 μmol h−1 (10 mg catalyst is used for photocatalytic reaction), which is 26.7 times and 2.6 times higher than that of pure In2O3 (0.75 μmol h−1) and In2S3/In2O3 binary HS (7.88 μmol h−1), respectively. The enhanced photocatalytic activity can be attributed to the multiple interfaces formed in the ICS HSs, including the CdIn2S4–In2O3 interface, the In2S3–In2O3 interface, and the CdIn2S4–In2O3–In2S3 interface, which construct multiple pathways for the transfer of photogenerated charge carriers, effectively promoting the photocatalytic hydrogen production.