In situ tailoring of superconducting junctions via electro-annealing†
We demonstrate the in situ engineering of superconducting nanocircuitry by targeted modulation of material properties through high applied current densities. We show that the sequential repetition of such customized electro-annealing in a niobium (Nb) nanoconstriction can broadly tune the superconducting critical temperature Tc and the normal-state resistance Rn in the targeted area. Once a sizable Rn is reached, clear magneto-resistance oscillations are detected along with a Fraunhofer-like field dependence of the critical current, indicating the formation of a weak link but with further adjustable characteristics. Advanced Ginzburg–Landau simulations fully corroborate this picture, employing the detailed parametrization from the electrical characterization and high resolution electron microscope images of the region within the constriction where the material has undergone amorphization by electro-annealing.