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Issue 3, 2018
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Intrinsic rippling enhances static non-reciprocity in a graphene metamaterial

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In mechanical systems, Maxwell–Betti reciprocity means that the displacement at point B in response to a force at point A is the same as the displacement at point A in response to the same force applied at point B. Because the notion of reciprocity is general, fundamental, and is operant for other physical systems like electromagnetics, acoustics, and optics, there is significant interest in understanding systems that are not reciprocal, or exhibit non-reciprocity. However, most studies on non-reciprocity have occurred in bulk-scale structures for dynamic problems involving time reversal symmetry. As a result, little is known about the mechanisms governing static non-reciprocal responses, particularly in atomically-thin two-dimensional materials like graphene. Here, we use classical atomistic simulations to demonstrate that out-of-plane ripples, which are intrinsic to graphene, enable significant, multiple orders of magnitude enhancements in the statically non-reciprocal response of graphene metamaterials. Specifically, we find that a striking interplay between the ripples and the stress fields that are induced in the metamaterials due to their geometry impacts the displacements that are transmitted by the metamaterial, thus leading to a significantly enhanced static non-reciprocal response. This study thus demonstrates the potential of two-dimensional mechanical metamaterials for symmetry-breaking applications.

Graphical abstract: Intrinsic rippling enhances static non-reciprocity in a graphene metamaterial

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The article was received on 14 Oct 2017, accepted on 08 Dec 2017 and first published on 11 Dec 2017

Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C7NR07651G
Citation: Nanoscale, 2018,10, 1207-1214
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    Intrinsic rippling enhances static non-reciprocity in a graphene metamaterial

    D. T. Ho, H. S. Park and S. Y. Kim, Nanoscale, 2018, 10, 1207
    DOI: 10.1039/C7NR07651G

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