Photon upconversion in organic nanoparticles and subsequent amplification by plasmonic silver nanowires†
The development of photonic materials with high photoluminescence is always a challenge in photochemistry and photophysics. Here we present a general approach for enhancing photon upconversion through aggregation and further via surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Luminescent nanoparticles from a tetraphenylethylene derivative were fabricated, showing excellent aggregation-induced emission (AIE) behavior. By mixing with a triplet sensitizer platinum octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP), aggregation-induced photon upconversion (iPUC) could be achieved, resulting in an enhancement of the emission. Blending such iPUC nanoparticles with silver nanowires (AgNWs), the upconverted emission intensity could be significantly amplified due to the SPR of AgNWs. Thus, the concepts of aggregation-induced emission (AIE), metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF) and aggregation-induced photon upconversion (iPUC) were successfully integrated and achieved.