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Issue 1, 2018
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Soft X-ray activated NaYF4:Gd/Tb scintillating nanorods for in vivo dual-modal X-ray/X-ray-induced optical bioimaging

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Abstract

Lanthanide (Ln) nanocrystals using soft X-ray as an excitation source have received significant research interest due to the advantages of unlimited penetration depth of X-ray light. In this study, we demonstrated an efficient scintillator based on NaYF4:Gd nanorods (denoted as NRs) doped with different contents of terbium (Tb) ions for optical bioimaging under X-ray irradiation. The experimental results showed that the emission intensity was correlated to the doping contents of Tb3+, and the largest emission intensity was achieved by doping 15% Tb under excitation by soft X-ray light. In addition, the emission intensity of the as-prepared NRs can be significantly improved by increasing the excitation power and irradiation times of the X-ray. Owing to the efficient X-ray-induced emission, these NRs were successfully used as probes for X-ray-induced optical bioimaging with high sensitivity. In addition, the dual-modal X-ray imaging and X-ray induced optical bioimaging were performed on a mouse, which indicated that the NRs were promising dual-modal bioprobes. Therefore, the X-ray activation nature of the designed NRs makes them promising probes for biomedicine and X-ray-induced photodynamic therapy (PDT) applications owing to the unlimited penetration depth of X-ray excitation source and absence of autofluorescence.

Graphical abstract: Soft X-ray activated NaYF4:Gd/Tb scintillating nanorods for in vivo dual-modal X-ray/X-ray-induced optical bioimaging

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
25 Apr 2017
Accepted
21 Nov 2017
First published
23 Nov 2017

Nanoscale, 2018,10, 342-350
Article type
Paper

Soft X-ray activated NaYF4:Gd/Tb scintillating nanorods for in vivo dual-modal X-ray/X-ray-induced optical bioimaging

X. Li, Z. Xue, M. Jiang, Y. Li, S. Zeng and H. Liu, Nanoscale, 2018, 10, 342
DOI: 10.1039/C7NR02926H

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