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Issue 9, 2018
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Chromosomal aberrations, cell suppression and oxidative stress generation induced by metal oxide nanoparticles in onion (Allium cepa) bulb

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Abstract

There has been rapid increase globally in the production of functionally divergent nanoparticles in recent times. The uncontrolled discharge of such nanomaterials is a serious threat to the environment. We assess the impact of various-sized metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs) on cell cycle progression and induction of oxidative stress in onions. Of these, CuO-NPs and TiO2-NPs significantly reduced the mitotic index (MI) by 28% and 17%, respectively, whereas Al2O3-NPs augmented the MI by 13% compared to untreated onion roots. The NPs internalization into the root tissues followed a dose dependent fashion. Also, several types of chromosomal aberration such as bridges, stickiness, vagrant, broken, and lag chromosomes were noticed. The reactive oxygen species activity of roots growing under CuO-NPs, Al2O3-NPs, and TiO2-NPs was significantly increased by 58, 30, and 10%, respectively. The superoxide dismutases activity (U g−1 FW) of roots increased from 2.4 ± 0.4 (control) to 6.1 ± 0.8 (CuO-NPs), 4.1 ± 0.2 (Al2O3-NPs) and 2.9 ± 0.2 (TiO2-NPs), whereas, catalase activity (mmoles min−1 g−1 FW) was recorded as 18.5 ± 2.1 (CuO-NPs), 15 ± 1.1 (Al2O3-NPs) and 13.8 ± 1 (TiO2-NPs) against 11.4 ± 1 (control). The formazan formed due to superoxide (O2˙) reaction with nitroblue tetrazolium showed a dose dependent increase in roots treated with Al2O3-NPs and TiO2-NPs. Interestingly, under CuO-NPs exposure, the absorbance was considerably high at 200 μg ml−1 which dropped at 2000 μg ml−1 suggesting a clear attenuation of O2˙ by superoxide scavenging enzymes. The present findings provide base line data for better understanding of the mechanistic basis of phytotoxicity of MONPs to onion plants which can further be extended to other vegetable crops.

Graphical abstract: Chromosomal aberrations, cell suppression and oxidative stress generation induced by metal oxide nanoparticles in onion (Allium cepa) bulb

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Publication details

The article was received on 24 Apr 2018, accepted on 02 Aug 2018 and first published on 06 Aug 2018


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C8MT00093J
Citation: Metallomics, 2018,10, 1315-1327
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    Chromosomal aberrations, cell suppression and oxidative stress generation induced by metal oxide nanoparticles in onion (Allium cepa) bulb

    B. Ahmed, M. Shahid, M. S. Khan and J. Musarrat, Metallomics, 2018, 10, 1315
    DOI: 10.1039/C8MT00093J

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