Li- and Mn-rich layered oxide cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries: a review from fundamentals to research progress and applications
Li- and Mn-rich layered oxides (LMRO) have drawn much attention for application as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries due to their high-energy density of over 1000 W h kg−1. However, several issues and challenges need to be overcome before realizing the commercialization of LMRO cathode materials, including their disputed crystal structure, ambiguous reaction mechanism, high initial irreversible capacity, poor cycle life, fast voltage fading, and poor rate capability. In this paper, we systematically review the development history, elaborate the fundamentals and demonstrate the latest research advances in LMRO cathode materials. Furthermore, the applications of LMRO cathode materials and their related key technical issues in full-cells, as well as the prospects for future research are also discussed.