Revisiting amino acids and peptides as anti-glycation agents
The importance of controlling or preventing protein glycation cannot be overstated and is of prime importance in the treatment of diabetes and associated complications including Alzheimer's disease, cataracts, atherosclerosis, kidney aliments among others. In this respect, simple molecules such as amino acids and peptides hold much promise both in terms of ease and scale-up of synthesis as well as in relation to negligible/low associated toxicity. In view of this, a comprehensive account of literature reports is presented, that documents the anti-glycation activity of natural and non-natural amino acids and peptides. This review also discusses the chemical reactions involved in glycation and the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and possible/probable intervention sites and mechanism of action of the reported amino acids/peptides. This aspect of amino acids/peptides adds to their growing importance in medicinal and therapeutic applications.