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An in vitro exploratory study of dietary strategies based on polyphenol-rich beverages, fruit juices and oils to control trimethylamine production in the colon

Abstract

Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) has been described as a new biomarker of cardiovascular disease (CVD), deriving from dietary choline and L-carnitine gut microbial biotransformation into trimethylamine (TMA), and subsequent hepatic oxidation. (Poly)phenols are among the dietary factors able to interfere with microbial enzymatic activity, possibly modulating TMA biotransformation at gut level. The aim of this work was investigating the in vitro biotransformation of choline and carnitine using faecal starters obtained from omnivorous and vegetarian subjects and the effect of (poly)phenol-rich foods on TMA production. Choline and L-carnitine were fermented with vegetarian or omnivorous faecal slurries, alone or in combination with 10 (poly)phenol-rich food items. TMA production from carnitine, but not from choline, was significantly lower when vegetarian faecal starters were used, and, among the tested food items, blonde orange juice significantly reduced TMA formation during faecal biotransformation. Consequently, the main compounds of orange juice, namely phenolic compounds, terpenes, limonoids, organic acids and sugars, were tested individually. Sugars exerted the highest inhibitory effect on TMA production. Despite some limitations deriving from the applied in vitro model, this is the first work describing a possible role of some (poly)phenol-rich dietary products on the modulation of TMA colonic production. Free sugars were the main responsible of TMA inhibition, suggesting a potential beneficial role of colonic fermentation of carbohydrates in reducing TMA formation from its precursor molecules. This work opens new research lines to evaluate the effect of the dietary fermentable fibre in TMA production and, potentially, on circulating TMAO levels.

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Publication details

The article was received on 10 Sep 2018, accepted on 31 Oct 2018 and first published on 01 Nov 2018


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C8FO01778F
Citation: Food Funct., 2018, Accepted Manuscript
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    An in vitro exploratory study of dietary strategies based on polyphenol-rich beverages, fruit juices and oils to control trimethylamine production in the colon

    L. Bresciani, M. Dall'Asta, C. Favari, L. Calani, D. Del Rio and F. Brighenti, Food Funct., 2018, Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.1039/C8FO01778F

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