Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol rich extracts from olive leaves attenuate liver injury and lipid metabolism disturbance in bisphenol A-treated rats
In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of oleuropein- and hydroxytyrosol-rich extracts obtained from olive leaves against bisphenol A (BPA)-induced hyperlipidemia and liver injury in male rats. For this purpose, four groups of male rats (8 per group) were used: control group (Control), rats treated with BPA, rats treated with both BPA and oleuropein (OLE-BPA), and rats treated with both BPA and hydroxytyrosol (HYT-BPA). After 60 days of treatment, the results obtained using the DXA technique showed that treatment with BPA (10 mg per kg b.w.) increased the body weight and adipose tissue mass in male rats. Moreover, plasma levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, AST, ALT, LDH, and TNF-α increased. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed a significant increase in the expression of COX-2 and p53 and a decrease in the expression of Bcl-2 related to liver inflammation. Oral administration of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol-rich extracts obtained from olive leaves at 16 mg kg−1 reduced both the body weight and adipose tissue mass. These extracts were able to ameliorate liver damage and improve the elevated levels of TG and liver enzymes of BPA-treated rats possibly through enhancing CAT and SOD activities. Western blot results revealed that administration of the abovementioned extracts decreased the protein expression of NF-κB and TNF-α through the p38 signaling pathway. Overall, the findings suggest that the olive leaf extracts possess hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects against BPA-induced metabolic disorders through enhancing the antioxidative defense system and regulating the important signaling pathway activities.