Jump to main content
Jump to site search

Issue 2, 2018
Previous Article Next Article

In vitro digestion with bile acids enhances the bioaccessibility of kale polyphenols

Author affiliations


Kale (Brassica oleracea) is a leafy green vegetable belonging to the Brassicaceae family, and kale leaves have large amounts of dietary fiber and polyphenolics. Dietary fiber can bind bile acids, thus potentially decreasing cholesterol levels; however, whether the polyphenols from kale contribute to in vitro bile acid binding capacity remains unclear. In the present study, kale was extracted with hexane, acetone, and MeOH : water and the dried extracts, as well as the fiber-rich residue, were tested for their bile acid binding capacity. The fiber-rich residue bound total bile acids in amounts equivalent to that bound by raw kale. The lyophilized acetone extract bound significantly more glycochenodeoxycholate and glycodeoxycholate and less of other bile acids. To test whether bile acid binding enhanced the bioaccessibility of polyphenolic compounds from kale, we used ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify chemical constituents and measure their bioaccessibility in an in vitro digestion reaction. This identified 36 phenolic compounds in kale, including 18 kaempferol derivatives, 13 quercetin derivatives, 4 sinapoyl derivatives, and one caffeoylquinic acid. The bioaccessibility of these phenolics was significantly higher (69.4%) in digestions with bile acids. Moreover, bile acids enhanced the bioaccessibility of quercetin by 25 times: only 2.7% of quercetin derivatives were bioaccessible in the digestion without bile acids, but with bile acids, their accessibility increased to 69.5%. Bile acids increased the bioaccessibility of kaempferol from 37.7% to 69.2%. The extractability and biostability of total phenolics in the digested residue increased 1.8 fold in the digestions with bile acids. These results demonstrated the potential use of kale to improve human health.

Graphical abstract: In vitro digestion with bile acids enhances the bioaccessibility of kale polyphenols

Back to tab navigation

Supplementary files

Publication details

The article was received on 07 Nov 2017, accepted on 11 Jan 2018 and first published on 12 Jan 2018

Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C7FO01749A
Citation: Food Funct., 2018,9, 1235-1244
  •   Request permissions

    In vitro digestion with bile acids enhances the bioaccessibility of kale polyphenols

    I. Yang, G. K. Jayaprakasha and B. Patil, Food Funct., 2018, 9, 1235
    DOI: 10.1039/C7FO01749A

Search articles by author