Colloidal particles for the delivery of steroid glycosides
Water insoluble bioactive molecules with very high melting temperature and low solubility in water are difficult to formulate in food products. We demonstrate the synthesis of nanoscale particles from steroid glycosides using a facile liquid antisolvent precipitation method in the presence of various food grade stabilizers. Colloidal particles with sizes well below 200 nm are prepared from steroid glycosides containing extracts, as well as mixtures with phytosterol. In the mixtures, the formation of the typical for the phytosterol rod-like particles is suppressed. Particle size and structure are investigated by electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Due to the presence of surface charge and steric stabilization, colloidal particles do not display aggregation and are stable for a period of longer than one year. The results of this study are important for the formulation and delivery of steroid glycoside and phytosterol bioactive molecules in the fields of food, nutraceuticals, and medical applications.