Jump to main content
Jump to site search


Framework for Cost-Effective Prediction of Unregulated Disinfection By-Products in Drinking Water Distribution Using Differential Free Chlorine

Abstract

Unregulated disinfection by-products (U-DBPs) in drinking water are formed primarily by the reaction of disinfectants (e.g., chlorine) and natural organic matter (NOM). The formation can be dictated by basic water quality and operational parameters. This purpose of this study was to develop a cost-effective framework for predicting U-DBP concentration in water distribution networks (WDNs) based on changes in free chlorine in the WDN with respect to that at the water treatment plant (WTP) outlet (called differential free chlorine, i.e., Cl2). Under the framework, mixed-effects models were developed to predict U-DBP families: haloacetonitriles (HANs) and haloketones (HKs) and individual compounds: chloropicrin (CPK), dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), borochloroacetonitrile (BCAN), and 1,1,1 trichloropropanone (TCP). Common water quality parameters at the WTP outlet were also included to increase the effectiveness of the models. The models developed were applied successfully to two applications: a single large-sized and combined medium-sized water systems with the R2 of predictive models up to 0.95 and a 95% confidence interval of percent difference in the predictions of -27% to 32%. These applications show that Cl2 only or with basic water quality parameters at WTP are effective parameters for estimating U-DBP concentration in WDNs. The proposed framework can be used by water utilities as a low-cost method to develop models for their water systems to identify potential locations to monitor U-DBPs. Moreover, the frameworks can be used by public health organizations to assess population exposure to U-DBPs in drinking water.

Back to tab navigation

Publication details

The article was received on 12 Jun 2018, accepted on 29 Jul 2018 and first published on 01 Aug 2018


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C8EW00394G
Citation: Environ. Sci.: Water Res. Technol., 2018, Accepted Manuscript
  •   Request permissions

    Framework for Cost-Effective Prediction of Unregulated Disinfection By-Products in Drinking Water Distribution Using Differential Free Chlorine

    G. Chhipi Shrestha, M. J. Rodriguez and R. Sadiq, Environ. Sci.: Water Res. Technol., 2018, Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.1039/C8EW00394G

Search articles by author

Spotlight

Advertisements