Prospects of biosynthesized nanomaterials for the remediation of organic and inorganic environmental contaminants
Nanotechnology deals with matter at dimensions within 1–100 nm, with such material displaying a wide range of applications in industry, medicine and environmental remediation. Futuristic approaches for the green synthesis of nanomaterials (NMs) and nanoparticles (NPs) via modification to control their size and shape can enhance their qualities for future applications. The new horizon of opportunities and potential for innovation together with the impact of recent advances in nanotechnology research have led to the recognition of these materials for application in environmental remediation. Diverse microorganisms, microbially synthesized compounds and plant extracts-mediated biosynthesized NMs/NPs have significant relevance in remediation. Biological nanofactories yield NPs that are considered more cost-effective and environmentally friendly than conventional chemical methods. Nanoremediation incorporates NMs, NPs, nanomembranes and nanopowders for detection as well as for the removal of toxic metals and organic compounds from the environment. Various processes of adsorption, transformation, photocatalysis and catalytic reduction have been achieved by various inorganic and organic nanoscale materials for the removal of toxic metals and organic compounds. Nanobiosensors have also been utilized to detect heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants and could be commercialized for their application in environment sampling. This review summarizes the different types of biologically synthesized NMs/NPs together with their mechanisms for the biosensing and remediation of environmental pollutants.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Environmental Science: Nano Recent Review Articles