Rapid detection of nutrients with electronic sensors: a review
Nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus are key indexes in evaluating water eutrophication. Electronic sensors, i.e., potentiometric sensors, voltammetric sensors, and field-effect transistor (FET) sensors, that rely on electrical signals (e.g., potential, current and resistance) have shown unique properties and capabilities in detecting nutrients. Compared with conventional methods, these electronic sensors enable a rapid and low-level detection of nitrogen salts and phosphates in water. Over the past decades various sensor designs and sensing elements have been studied and reported. With the development of nanomaterials, the performance of electronic sensors has been further improved, presenting tremendous opportunities for detecting nutrients and other water contaminants. This review article will introduce the recent progress of electronic sensors in detecting nitrogen salts and phosphates, and will discuss current limitations and future directions for these sensors.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Environmental Science: Nano Recent Review Articles