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A Pilot Study of Metabolites of Organophosphorus Flame Retardants in Paired Maternal Urine and Amniotic Fluid Samples: Potential Exposure Risks of Tributyl Phosphate to Pregnant Women

Abstract

Organophosphorus flame retardants (OPs) are widely of concerned due to their present in human urine and considerable endocrine disrupting and neuro-development toxicity. It is confirmed that electronic waste (e-waste) dismantling activities contributed to human exposure to OPs. However, OPs exposure and health risk assessment of pregnant women and fetuses living in the e-waste dismantling area have been impeded by the lack of data. In this study, six OPs metabolites (mOPs) were measured in paired maternal urine and amniotic fluid samples collected from an e-waste dismantling area in Guangdong Province, China. All mOPs were detectable in maternal urine, whereas two of them were found in amniotic fluid. Dibutyl phosphate (DBP) was the predominant mOP in both maternal urine (geometric mean (GM): 2.9 ng/ml) and amniotic fluid (1.3 ng/ml); and diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) was the secondary one (0.94 ng/ml in maternal urine, 0.12 ng/ml in amniotic fluid). The GM urinary concentrations of DBP and DPHP were two and seven times higher than those in amniotic fluid, respectively. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) and tributyl phosphate (TnBP) by pregnant women were calculated from their daily urine excretion rate as the fraction of OP metabolized to corresponding metabolite (FUE). Our results showed high exposure levels of TPHP (median: 273 or 613 ng/kg bw/day) and TnBP (404 ng/kg bw/day) in pregnant women living in e-waste area. Most importantly, 13% of mothers had EDITnBP that exceeded the reference dose (RfD: 2400 ng/kg bw/day), suggesting potential health risk from TnBP exposure in pregnant women living in e-waste dismantling area. This study as a pilot study presents the first measurement of mOPs in human amniotic fluid.

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Publication details

The article was received on 25 Aug 2018, accepted on 01 Nov 2018 and first published on 05 Nov 2018


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C8EM00389K
Citation: Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2018, Accepted Manuscript
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    A Pilot Study of Metabolites of Organophosphorus Flame Retardants in Paired Maternal Urine and Amniotic Fluid Samples: Potential Exposure Risks of Tributyl Phosphate to Pregnant Women

    X. Bai, S. Lu, L. Xie, B. Zhang, S. Song, Y. He, J. Ouyang and T. Zhang, Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2018, Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.1039/C8EM00389K

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