Externally controlled atom transfer radical polymerization
Spatial and temporal regulations of ATRP by external stimuli are presented. Various ATRP techniques, eATRP, photoATRP, and mechanoATRP, are controlled by electrical current, light, and mechanical forces, respectively. Conversely, ARGET and SARA ATRP are controlled by chemical reducing agents. ICAR ATRP is a thermally regulated process through decomposition of a radical initiator. The aim of this review is to highlight the use of external regulations in ATRP and to summarize the state-of-the-art and future perspectives, focusing on mechanistic aspects, synthetic procedures, preparation of polymers with complex architectures and functional materials, and their applications.