Planar chiral [2.2]paracyclophanes: from synthetic curiosity to applications in asymmetric synthesis and materials
Planar chiral [2.2]paracyclophane-based ligands and employment of such enantiopure representative ligands to facilitate selective transformation of prochiral or racemic substances into enantiopure products are rarely explored compared to the complex chiral scaffolds such as ferrocenes. This tutorial discusses recent findings and inspiring progress in design, synthetic tunability and applications of planar chiral [2.2]paracyclophane systems as a practical class of catalysts for asymmetric synthesis. Here, we summarize a series of planar chiral [2.2]paracyclophanes that are becoming an important new tool-box in asymmetric synthesis, employed in a variety of synthetic venues such as new chiral ligands and catalysts for stereo-controlled and enantioselective addition of alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl and aryl zinc reagents to aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes, ketones, imines and many more. Besides, planar chiral [2.2]paracyclophanes are useful synthons, from a material perspective, can be incorporated into conjugated polymeric systems for chiroptical and optoelectronic properties, find broad applications in bio- and materials science, for instance, gold-based cytostatics, surface-mounted chiral MOF thin films for selective adsorption or in functionalized parylene polymer coatings, to name a few. This is an up-to-date tutorial review, written exclusively on planar chiral [2.2]paracyclophane chemistry, covering key aspects of synthesis, structures, properties, applications and future directions of chiral polymeric assemblies and novel biomaterials built with [2.2]paracyclophanes.