Raman spectroscopy of graphene-based materials and its applications in related devices
Graphene-based materials exhibit remarkable electronic, optical, and mechanical properties, which has resulted in both high scientific interest and huge potential for a variety of applications. Furthermore, the family of graphene-based materials is growing because of developments in preparation methods. Raman spectroscopy is a versatile tool to identify and characterize the chemical and physical properties of these materials, both at the laboratory and mass-production scale. This technique is so important that most of the papers published concerning these materials contain at least one Raman spectrum. Thus, here, we systematically review the developments in Raman spectroscopy of graphene-based materials from both fundamental research and practical (i.e., device applications) perspectives. We describe the essential Raman scattering processes of the entire first- and second-order modes in intrinsic graphene. Furthermore, the shear, layer-breathing, G and 2D modes of multilayer graphene with different stacking orders are discussed. Techniques to determine the number of graphene layers, to probe resonance Raman spectra of monolayer and multilayer graphenes and to obtain Raman images of graphene-based materials are also presented. The extensive capabilities of Raman spectroscopy for the investigation of the fundamental properties of graphene under external perturbations are described, which have also been extended to other graphene-based materials, such as graphene quantum dots, carbon dots, graphene oxide, nanoribbons, chemical vapor deposition-grown and SiC epitaxially grown graphene flakes, composites, and graphene-based van der Waals heterostructures. These fundamental properties have been used to probe the states, effects, and mechanisms of graphene materials present in the related heterostructures and devices. We hope that this review will be beneficial in all the aspects of graphene investigations, from basic research to material synthesis and device applications.