Principles and applications of EPR spectroscopy in the chemical sciences
Electron spins permeate every aspect of science and influence numerous chemical processes: they underpin transition metal chemistry and biochemistry, mediate photosynthesis and photovoltaics and are paramount in the field of quantum information, to name but a few. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy detects unpaired electrons and provides detailed information on structure and bonding of paramagnetic species. In this tutorial review, aimed at non-specialists, we provide a theoretical framework and examples to illustrate the vast scope of the technique in chemical research. Case studies were chosen to exemplify systematically the different interactions that characterize a paramagnetic centre and to illustrate how EPR spectroscopy may be used to derive chemical information.